better known as MMS

A molecule with the potential of supporting
defense mechanisms in Malaria affected
individuals by enhancement of redox resources?

Klaus Schustereder, M.D

Chlorine Dioxide Introduction

Life threatening disease makes you think about life and death. They make us poring over existential questions. Such diseases are challenging for the patient, but also for the environment and the medical world.

Malaria still is the biggest challenge in health care worldwide. Each year, up to three million deaths due to malaria and close to five billion episodes of clinical illness possibly meriting antimalarial therapy occur through the world, with Africa having more than 90 % of this burden. (Ref. 1).

Malaria became a serious health problem for me after having worked for more than two years in an holoendemic area in Central African Republic. I had been affected personally (thirteen acute crises) and had had the opportunity to treat malaria patients on a daily base. I further had the opportunity to see patients suffering from malaria in their social environment. This allowed me to make exciting observations which I had not yet come across in the medical literature.

Malaria helped me to question myself on a very deep level. The pain I experienced, the fever and especially the hyperventilations I went through, finally helped me to transcend my existing inner world, towards so far unknown realms. Malaria allowed me to discover my inner universe and to connect with forces I could not access before. To some extent malaria enabled me to connect to some of my potentials and to see clearer to the purpose and reasons of my existence.

Furthermore, it is a matter of fact that, at least in rural Africa, classical antimalarial (like chinin, chinolon, mefloquin or artemesin) treatment is usually associated with antipyretics, barbiturates, antibiotics, etc. Such combinations of treatment, of course are not the golden standard in the treatment of malaria. Nevertheless, such applications are daily reality in low-income countries, leading to deaths due to interactions and side effects of medication. This is of course, first of all, an education issue in low-income countries. If we could improve education systems, get more people trained in health care and countries would manage to pay wages, etc., the general population would benefit tremendously, and not just in terms of malaria. However, my observations, that there is serious comorbidity associated with malaria treatments in low-income countries, make obvious the urgent need for non-toxic alternatives in the treatment of malaria.

Surprisingly, half of my acute crises have been triggered by emotional stresses like anger and fear. The emotional component also seemed to be a major trigger in many of the Africans. Due to the complexity of intercultural dialogue, western doctors very often are not aware of the emotional factors in the context of Malaria. Whereas the main focus in conventional medicine is the somatic level, I decided to pay also attention to the emotional sphere. Integrating the emotional component in the context of infectious diseases like malaria allows for a more comprehensive and coherent picture of the disease. It further allowed me to see the potential of malaria in the context of individual growths within the rules of a traditional society. Contingent on individual copying resources, the disease process results in a systemic integration and transformation process. I believe that such systematic changes have the potential to trigger individual growth. I further believe that malaria offers patients the potential to progress in their individuation process, leading to more autonomy, which is very often a source of conflict in the context of traditional societies like the Gbaya society (northwest Central African Republic) which is an a-cephalic consensus oriented society. The nature of death, being omnipresent in the malaria theme, also appears in the reproduction cycle of the parasite allowing evolution and change where death and birth become the driving force for change.

Having had the huge opportunity to work in an holoendemic area, I gradually changed my conventional understanding on malaria. My view shifted from a disease picture towards a disease process finally focusing on the natural defense mechanisms triggered through the Plasmodium.

My personal experience, my professional experience, as well as the preliminary research data we could obtain, lead to the conclusion, that a new treatment for malaria can be developed on the basis of Chlorine Dioxide. Such a malaria treatment has the potential of:

  • High Effectiveness
  • Low grade or even Non-Toxicity
  • Sustainability (no development of resistant malaria parasites)
  • Affordability
  • They can be universally integrated independently into cultural contexts

The complexity of malaria treatment in a country like CAR leads to the following conclusion:  “If we really want to progress in the treatment of malaria in low income countries, we need to bypass the conventional medical system with non-toxic methods”.

Ideally the treatment does support the individual defense mechanisms in order to promote the process of individuation allowing to break up/through conventional believe pattern and believe systems in traditional societies. Immune-biological responses triggered by Plasmodium leading to emergent properties in malaria affected individuals; from defense response to signs & symptoms.

The inflammatory response in the context of malaria is a systemic phenomenon and has systemic effects impacting mind and body. After having gone more into the details of human’s defense triggered by Plasmodium, I realized the ROS are a ubiquitary mechanism within the context of the immune system. Redox biology is a phenomena characterized by fluctuation between ROS and antioxidant response. In acute disease like malaria redox biology becomes an integrated element of body defense, where Plasmodium challenges the body to generate ROS in the first place, whereas the upregulation of antioxidants is a cell protective reflex. In this sense the inflammatory process impacts the homeostasis of the individual and risks pushing the stable disequilibrium (in my opinion: redox fluctuation is a stable disequilibrium) into an unstable disequilibrium. Such a shift in disequilibrium triggers new properties of the organism triggering the emergence of phenomena on the physical and emotional level. Such emerging properties in conventional medical language are called symptoms. In the context of adaptive immune response, symptoms are the individual expression to deal with the stress caused by the invader; in malaria it is plasmodium.

Reactive Oxidant Species (ROS) like superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical are highly reactive towards lipids, proteins and DNA and severely harmful for cell survival when present at very high concentrations. This fact led to the concept of oxidative stress as a detrimental condition occurring in all living systems, arising from the imbalance between oxidants species and antioxidant defense. Denham Harman postulated the free radical theory of ageing, in which he stated that free radicals were the primary cause of massive damage to DNA and all cellular macromolecules, culminating in cancer and in diffuse cell dysfunction resulting in ageing.  (Ref 2)

In 2014 Nobel prize winner James Watson published an article in the Lancet postulating that diabetes, dementias, cardiovascular diseases and some cancers are accelerated, if not caused, by failure of the endoplasmic reticulum to generate sufficient oxidative redox potential for disulphide bonds to be formed. Reductive redox potentials might be the molecular essence of a number of diseases (Ref 3).

Does this also count for infectious diseases like malaria?

It is commonly accepted that the principal source of ROS in the cell is the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Indeed, mitochondrial complexes (mainly complexes I and III) can leap electrons, leading to the partial reduction of oxygen to O2 that spontaneously, or by the superoxide dismutase SOD—mediated catalysis, very rapidly disproportionates into H2O2. It has been estimated that ROS produced by mitochondria are 1 – 2 % of the total rate of oxygen consumption. (Ref 4)

Is hyperventilation in Malaria patients an adaptive response in order to generate ROS and to improve its natural defense against Plasmodium?

Oxidative Alterations in the host are known to be induced by the plasmodium parasite. Such alterations are a response of the host in order to improve its defense mechanism. We know that infection with plasmodium leads to activation with the involvement of phagocytes. Macrophages generate ROS and RNS which triggers oxidative stress. As counter reaction anti-oxidant production is up regulated in order to keep in check the potential harmful effects of ROS and RNS species.

The ability to generate a coherent and well-orchestrated general immune response to defend plasmodium infection is crucial. The generation of ROS/RNS is part of the general immune defense and thus an adaptive response in order to improve the host defense. The increased production of ROS by phagocytes, as part of the host defense, is a primary event. In fact, it is a generally accepted that ROS, including 02 and ONOO-, can destroy the parasite intra-erythrocytically (Ref. 5) addressing probably primarily thiol compounds which are crucial for the life cycle of Plasmodium. Anti-oxidants up regulation is to avoid auto destructive effects of ROS/RNS. Furthermore, in vitro studies have shown that oxidative stress promotes the killing of parasites. (Ref 6)

The parasite itself has developed antioxidant defense mechanisms in order to cope with oxidative stress.

Furthermore, we know the importance of ROS/RNS participation in the parasitemia elimination process as the main mechanism through which most anti-malaria drugs act. These substances are also known to regulate immune response by stimulating or inhibiting production of a certain cytokine, transcription factors and even regulating cell death processes (Ref. 7)

Chlorine Dioxide or ClO2 also known as MMS

Reactive Oxidative Species (ROS) actually first came into my attention when I tried to understand the results of sport on my health. Exercise helped me significantly to improve my health which was so much affected by malaria. Back in 2007 when I was still suffering from severe malaria attacks, I was not aware at all about the importance of ROS in the context of immune defense.

Interestingly, first therapeutic uses of a molecule with oxidative properties against infectious diseases can be traced back to the beginning of the 20th century for the treatment of tuberculosis. The first registration was done by William D. Neel, patented in june 1909, No. 925.590. The last patent I could find is: CHLORITE IN THE TREATMENT NEUROGENERATIVE DISEASES, PATENT NO: US 8.029,826 B2.

Millions of people worldwide suffering from all kinds of affections have taken low doses of ClO2 diluted in water, after the American engineer Jim Humble published his work about how to activate NaClO2 with a weak acid, generating low doses of Chlorine dioxide, and how to take this molecule diluted in water, a solution Mr Humble called MMS, meaning Miracle Mineral Solution. In the internet the beneficial effects of people having taken MMS are reported in metabolic disease, infectious diseases, cancer and degenerative diseases. Despite very few reports regarding intoxication with such a solution, and public health authorities calling for the avoidance of such solutions. Probably millions of people have, in fact, drunk low doses of ClO2 diluted in water.

ClO2 is a highly reactive oxidant and well known in the field of water disinfection. Yet, no data, nor any hypothesis have been published so far about the possible pharmacological effect of ClO2. The only focus in ClO2 research so far seemed to concern its toxicology. This is not really surprising since hundreds of millions of people drink tap water disinfected with ClO2 every day. Very few data actually exist regarding intoxications in humans with ClO2.

Enhancing the process of defense in malaria affected people by external upregulation of endogenous redox-resources through administration of ClO2:

1. Does oral intake of low doses of Chlorine dioxide diluted in water trigger biological effects similar to Reactive Oxidant Species (ROS) interfering the delicate unstable equilibrium between oxidants and anti-oxidants?

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is known to be a very toxic gas. As mentioned above, it is used worldwide to disinfect water. Nevertheless, has this little molecule stabilized in water properties like endogenously generated ROS. Most of the literature published about ClO2 concerns water disinfection.

However, there is a lot of evidence that low doses of ClO2 (at least 1 mg/kg/bodyweight) diluted in water is biocompatible. Currently the WHO accepts up to 1 mg ClO2 per liter in tap water. Currently neither the NOEL (No Observed Effect Level) nor the LOEL (Lowest Observed Effect Level), nor the LD50 (Median Lethal Dose) or the TD50 (Median Toxic Dose) for humans are not known.

In cooperation with the Ministry of Health of Central African Republic and the Institute Pasteur in Bangui, we obtained clinical data and we could make movies of patients showing that oral application of this molecule is highly effective against certain pathogens, including those that are responsible for malaria and HIV (AIDS). (DATA NOT SHOWN!). Clinical observations of people suffering from malaria and HIV and who have drunk ClO2 solution showed impressive improvement of their clinical condition. It needs to be mentioned that Antiretroviral Medication is not regularly available in Central African Republic (CAR). The reason are numerous and it would exceed the purpose of this article to discuss this. However, Malaria affected individual generally improved within hours. It needs to be mentioned that clinical improvement are slower in patients suffering from multiple affections (f.e. Malaria + Typhoid Fever). In HIV patients, paradoxically the dynamics of Viral Loads (VL) and CD4 counts did not correspond with the evolution of lab parameters of patients treated with Antiretroviral medications (ARV). Patients taking 50 mg of ClO2 in 200 ml water showed an initial increase of VL and decrease of CD4 count. Paradoxically the patients felt better even with this unexpected dynamics of lab parameters. Whereas in a second phase VL decreased and CD4 increased. Interestingly, this is in perfect coherence with the dynamics of CD4 counts and VL observed with patients presenting an HIV primary syndrome.

The documentation of our patients lasted six months. Videos have been taken before starting the treatment, within the first three weeks and six months after the treatment, and showed clear improvement of the general condition, weight gain, hormonal recovery in women, improved immune defense with less malaria episodes, etc. The score we used to evaluate clinical improvements was the Karnofsky Index.

It needs to be mentioned, that social stigmatization has been a real problem for some of the patients (conventional belief: HIV patients do not improve!), hence spectacular improvement in the family and social environment trigger belief systems resulting in psychological stress such as isolation of the patients. A further real challenge for the patients was the increase in appetite during the treatment. Anorexia transformed into appetite. Patients were hungry, but did not have enough to eat. We believe that the health of our patients would have even improved quicker, if food would have been available regularly.

Chlorine Dioxide Conclusion

The paradigm of oxidative stress on one hand and maybe the toxicity of a gas on the other hand, might have impacted the research of ClO2 regarding its pharmacological properties. Therefore, potential pharmaceutical effects may have not been explored yet. ClO2 might have properties like ROS and hence even function as a signaling molecule triggering intracellular signal transduction resulting in autophagic processes. There is growing evidence that autophagy is crucial to maintain health and alterations in autophagy occur in human disease. Furthermore, there are data that are exhibiting low doses of ClO2 diluted in water have positive effects on degenerative disease, autoimmune disorders and cancer. Such observations have been described so far mainly by medical lay persons. At this point systematic evaluation of such data does not exist.

The US 8.029,826 B2 Patent: CHLORITE IN THE TREATMENT OF NEUROGENERATIVE DISEASES as well as the registration of Natrium Chlorite as a treatment of an orphan disease, (On 19 June 2013, orphan designation (EU/3/13/1139) was granted by the European Commission to Shore Limited, United Kingdom, for sodium chlorite (also known as NP001) for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) demonstrate the already existing scientific background of oxidants as therapeutic molecules.

There is no doubt that the bioavailability of ClO2 is far beyond 1 mg/liter water.

Further research needs to be done do understand the potential of ClO2 in the treatment of Malaria and AIDS.

References to Chlorine Dioxide:

1.  Conquering the intolerable burden of Malaria; Joel G Breman, Martin S. Alilio and Anne Mills, Am J. Trop. Med. Hyg;
2. Harman D. Aging: A theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. J. Gerontol 1956; 11: 198 – 300
3. James D Watson, Nobel prize winner, published an article with the title: Type II Diabetes as a redox disease (Lancet 2014; 383: 841–43);
4. Chance B, Sies H, Boeris A. Hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian organs. Physiol. Rev 1979; 59, 527-605
5. Sobolewski, P.; Gramaglia, I.; Frangos, J.A.; Intaglietta, M.; Heyde, H.V.D. Plasmodium berghei resists killing by reactive oxygen species. Infection Immun. 2005, 73, 6704 – 6710
6. Dockrell, H.M.; Playfair, J.H. Killing of Plasmodium yoelli by enzyme -induced products of the oxidative burst. Infect. Immun. 1984, 43, 451-456
7. Arruda, M.A.; Rossi, A.G.; Freits, M.S.; Barja-Fidalgo, C.; Graca-Souza, A.V. Heme inhibits human neutrophil apopotosis; Involvement of phosphinositide 3_Kinase, MAPK, and NF-kappa B. J. Immunol. 2004, 173, 2023-2030